The total used agricultural land in Serbia covers 5,051,000 hectares, of which 3,295,000 hectares are in arable land. Farmland comprises around 70% of the total surface area of Serbia, while 30% is woodland.
Of the total agricultural area, arable land and gardens account for 65.2%, while 16.5% are pastures, meadows make 12.4%, and orchards and vineyards cover 4.8% and 1.1% respectively.
The structure of the sown area under grain fields and gardens account for 57.5%, industrial plants make 13.3%, vegetable plants 8.3% and forage crops 14%.
Of the total value of agricultural production in 2010, crop production accounted for 68.4% and cattle production accounted for 31.6%.
493,000 hectares are under wheat, 1235,000 hectares are covered with maize, sunflower and soybean each cover areas of 171,000 hectares while 67,000 hectares are covered with sugar beet.
The number of agricultural companies and agricultural cooperatives is 789, while there are 778,891 registered family farms.
The climate is moderate continental with an average annual temperature of 11–12°C. Average annual precipitation ranges from 600 mm to 800 mm in the plains and between 800 mm and 1,200 mm in the mountains.
Soil and climate conditions are highly conducive to the development of agriculture. The plains of Vojvodina, Pomoravlje, Posavina, Tamnava, Krusevac and Leskovac offer favourable conditions for mechanised field crop farming and vegetable production.
Rolling hills and foothills support fruit and wine production and livestock breeding. The hills and mountains of Zlatibor, Rudnik, Stara Planina, Kopaonik and Sar Planina are attractive for developing sheep and cattle breeding and forestry.
The total land area under forests in the Republic of Serbia is 1,978,112 hectares, of which 949,497 hectares, or approximately 48%, are state owned, while the remaining 52% are in the private sector.